Tippi MacKenzie

MD

  • Professor, Surgery
  • Pediatric Surgery

Biography

Dr. Tippi MacKenzie is Professor of Surgery at the UCSF Division of Pediatric Surgery and the Fetal Treatment Center. Dr. MacKenzie obtained her undergraduate degree in Biochemistry at Harvard, then came to the Bay Area for medical school at Stanford. She did her surgical residency at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. During this time, she took three years to do research on fetal surgery and in utero stem cell transplantation at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Following residency, she returned to CHOP for her clinical pediatric surgery fellowship.

Dr MacKenzie's clinical interests include fetal surgery, advanced laparoscopy, and endocrine and biliary surgery.

Education & Training

  • Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

    Pediatric Surgery

  • Brigham and Women's Hospital

    Surgery

  • Brigham and Women's Hospital

    Surgery

  • Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

    Fetal Therapy

  • Stanford University

    Medicine

Clincial Trials

Research Activities & Funding

  • Autoimmune Regulator gene (Aire)-mediated tolerance to pregnancy-associated self-antigens

    Sponsor: NIH R01AI145858

    Role: Principal Investigator

  • In utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of fetuses with alpha thalassemia major (phase I clinical trial)

    Sponsor: California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) CLIN2-09183

    Role: Principal Investigator

  • A precision medicine approach to detect dysbiosis and immune activation in preterm labor

    Sponsor: Burroughs Wellcome Fund Preterm Labor Initiative

    Role: Principal Investigator

  • T cell activation and the breakdown of maternal-fetal tolerance in preterm labor

    Sponsor: NIH R01AI116880

    Role: Principal Investigator

Publications

  • Schwab ME, Dong S, Lianoglou BR, Aguilar Lucero AF, Schwartz GB, Norton ME, MacKenzie TC, Sanders SJ. Exome sequencing of fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia supports a causal role for NR2F2, PTPN11, and WT1 variants. Am J Surg. 2021 Jul 20. PubMed

  • Gillis-Buck E, Miller H, Sirota M, Sanders SJ, Ntranos V, Anderson MS, Gardner JM, MacKenzie TC. Extrathymic Aire-expressing cells support maternal-fetal tolerance. Sci Immunol. 2021 Jul 16; 6(61). PubMed

  • Bianchi DW, Khosrotehrani K, Way SS, MacKenzie TC, Bajema I, O'Donoghue K. Forever Connected: The Lifelong Biological Consequences of Fetomaternal and Maternofetal Microchimerism. Clin Chem. 2021 01 30; 67(2):351-362. PubMed

  • Sagar R, Almeida-Porada G, Blakemore K, Chan JKY, Choolani M, Götherström C, Jaulent A, MacKenzie TC, Mattar C, Porada CD, Peranteau WH, Schneider H, Shaw SW, Waddington SN, Westgren M, David AL. Fetal and Maternal Safety Considerations for In Utero Therapy Clinical Trials: iFeTiS Consensus Statement. Mol Ther. 2020 11 04; 28(11):2316-2319. PubMed

  • Sparks TN, Lianoglou BR, Adami RR, Pluym ID, Holliman K, Duffy J, Downum SL, Patel S, Faubel A, Boe NM, Field NT, Murphy A, Laurent LC, Jolley J, Uy C, Slavotinek AM, Devine P, Hodoglugil U, Van Ziffle J, Sanders SJ, MacKenzie TC, Norton ME, University of California Fetal–Maternal Consortium , University of California, San Francisco Center for Maternal–Fetal Precision Medicine . Exome Sequencing for Prenatal Diagnosis in Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis. N Engl J Med. 2020 10 29; 383(18):1746-1756. PubMed

  • Witt RG, Blair L, Frascoli M, Rosen MJ, Nguyen QH, Bercovici S, Zompi S, Romero R, Mackenzie TC. Detection of microbial cell-free DNA in maternal and umbilical cord plasma in patients with chorioamnionitis using next generation sequencing. PLoS One. 2020; 15(4):e0231239. PubMed

  • Nguyen QH, Witt RG, Wang B, Eikani C, Shea J, Smith LK, Boyle G, Cadaoas J, Sper R, MacKenzie JD, Villeda S, MacKenzie TC. Tolerance induction and microglial engraftment after fetal therapy without conditioning in mice with Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII. Sci Transl Med. 2020 02 26; 12(532). PubMed

  • Halkias J, Rackaityte E, Hillman SL, Aran D, Mendoza VF, Marshall LR, MacKenzie TC, Burt TD. CD161 contributes to prenatal immune suppression of IFN?-producing PLZF+ T cells. J Clin Invest. 2019 05 30; 129(9):3562-3577. PubMed

  • Almeida-Porada G, Waddington SN, Chan JKY, Peranteau WH, MacKenzie T, Porada CD. In Utero Gene Therapy Consensus Statement from the IFeTIS. Mol Ther. 2019 04 10; 27(4):705-707. PubMed

  • Witt RG, Zobel M, Padilla B, Lee H, MacKenzie TC, Vu L. Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes of Sutureless vs Sutured Closure Techniques in Gastroschisis Repair. JAMA Surg. 2019 01 01; 154(1):33-39. PubMed

  • Witt RG, Wang B, Nguyen QH, Eikani C, Mattis AN, MacKenzie TC. Depletion of murine fetal hematopoietic stem cells with c-Kit receptor and CD47 blockade improves neonatal engraftment. Blood Adv. 2018 12 26; 2(24):3602-3607. PubMed

  • Godoy PM, Bhakta NR, Barczak AJ, Cakmak H, Fisher S, MacKenzie TC, Patel T, Price RW, Smith JF, Woodruff PG, Erle DJ. Large Differences in Small RNA Composition Between Human Biofluids. Cell Rep. 2018 10 30; 25(5):1346-1358. PubMed

  • MacKenzie TC. Future AAVenues for In Utero Gene Therapy. Cell Stem Cell. 2018 09 06; 23(3):320-321. PubMed

  • Vora B, Wang A, Kosti I, Huang H, Paranjpe I, Woodruff TJ, MacKenzie T, Sirota M. Meta-Analysis of Maternal and Fetal Transcriptomic Data Elucidates the Role of Adaptive and Innate Immunity in Preterm Birth. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:993. PubMed

  • Frascoli M, Coniglio L, Witt R, Jeanty C, Fleck-Derderian S, Myers DE, Lee TH, Keating S, Busch MP, Norris PJ, Tang Q, Cruz G, Barcellos LF, Gomez-Lopez N, Romero R, MacKenzie TC. Alloreactive fetal T cells promote uterine contractility in preterm labor via IFN-? and TNF-a. Sci Transl Med. 2018 04 25; 10(438). PubMed

  • Witt RG, Kreger EM, Buckman LB, Moradi PW, Ho PT, Derderian SC, Tsai P, Baker C, Schramm N, Cleary R, Garcia JV, MacKenzie TC. Systemic multilineage engraftment in mice after in utero transplantation with human hematopoietic stem cells. Blood Adv. 2018 01 09; 2(1):69-74. PubMed

  • Chumfong I, Lee H, Padilla BE, MacKenzie TC, Vu LT. Esophagoesophagopexy technique for assisted fistulization of esophageal atresia. Pediatr Surg Int. 2018 Jan; 34(1):63-69. PubMed

  • Berger VK, Sparks TN, Jelin AC, Derderian C, Jeanty C, Gosnell K, Mackenzie T, Gonzalez JM. Non-Immune Hydrops Fetalis: Do Placentomegaly and Polyhydramnios Matter? J Ultrasound Med. 2018 May; 37(5):1185-1191. PubMed

  • Padilla BE, Vu L, Lee H, MacKenzie T, Bratton B, O'Day M, Derderian S. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: late recurrence warrants long-term surveillance. Pediatr Surg Int. 2017 Nov; 33(11):1189-1194. PubMed

  • Witt R, MacKenzie TC, Peranteau WH. Fetal stem cell and gene therapy. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 12; 22(6):410-414. PubMed

  • Steurer MA, Peyvandi S, Baer RJ, MacKenzie T, Li BC, Norton ME, Jelliffe-Pawlowski LL, Moon-Grady AJ. Epidemiology of Live Born Infants with Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis-Insights from a Population-Based Dataset. J Pediatr. 2017 08; 187:182-188.e3. PubMed

  • Kreger EM, Singer ST, Witt RG, Sweeters N, Lianoglou B, Lal A, Mackenzie TC, Vichinsky E. Favorable outcomes after in utero transfusion in fetuses with alpha thalassemia major: a case series and review of the literature. Prenat Diagn. 2016 Dec; 36(13):1242-1249. PubMed

  • Beaudin AE, Boyer SW, Perez-Cunningham J, Hernandez GE, Derderian SC, Jujjavarapu C, Aaserude E, MacKenzie T, Forsberg EC. A Transient Developmental Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gives Rise to Innate-like B and T Cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2016 12 01; 19(6):768-783. PubMed

  • Li Y, Phelps A, Zapala MA, MacKenzie JD, MacKenzie TC, Courtier J. Magnetic resonance imaging of MĂĽllerian duct anomalies in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2016 May; 46(6):796-805. PubMed

  • Frascoli M, Jeanty C, Fleck S, Moradi PW, Keating S, Mattis AN, Tang Q, MacKenzie TC. Heightened Immune Activation in Fetuses with Gastroschisis May Be Blocked by Targeting IL-5. J Immunol. 2016 06 15; 196(12):4957-66. PubMed

  • Derderian SC, Jayme CM, Cheng LS, Keller RL, Moon-Grady AJ, MacKenzie TC. Mass Effect Alone May Not Explain Pulmonary Vascular Pathology in Severe Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2016; 39(2):117-24. PubMed

  • MacKenzie TC. Fetal Surgical conditions and the unraveling of maternal-fetal tolerance. J Pediatr Surg. 2016 Feb; 51(2):197-9. PubMed

  • Walters MC, MacKenzie TC. A booster shot to cure hemoglobinopathies. Blood. 2015 Sep 03; 126(10):1159-61. PubMed

  • Baer RJ, Chambers CD, Jones KL, Shew SB, MacKenzie TC, Shaw GM, Jelliffe-Pawlowski LL. Maternal factors associated with the occurrence of gastroschisis. . 2015 Jul; 167(7):1534-41. PubMed

  • Wegorzewska M, Le T, Tang Q, MacKenzie TC. Increased maternal T cell microchimerism in the allogeneic fetus during LPS-induced preterm labor in mice. Chimerism. 2014; 5(3-4):68-74. PubMed

  • MacKenzie TC, David AL, Flake AW, Almeida-Porada G. Consensus statement from the first international conference for in utero stem cell transplantation and gene therapy. Front Pharmacol. 2015; 6:15. PubMed

  • Derderian SC, Jeanty C, Walters MC, Vichinsky E, MacKenzie TC. In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies. Front Pharmacol. 2014; 5:278. PubMed

  • Derderian SC, Moradi PW, MacKenzie TC. Placental drug delivery for treatment of congenital hematopoietic disorders. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Sep; 50(9):1517-20. PubMed

  • Derderian SC, Jeanty C, Fleck SR, Cheng LS, Peyvandi S, Moon-Grady AJ, Farrell J, Hirose S, Gonzalez J, Keller RL, MacKenzie TC. The many faces of hydrops. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Jan; 50(1):50-4; discussion 54. PubMed

  • Jeanty C, Kunisaki SM, MacKenzie TC. Novel non-surgical prenatal approaches to treating congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Dec; 19(6):349-56. PubMed

  • Derderian SC, Coleman AM, Jeanty C, Lim FY, Shaaban AM, Farrell JA, Hirose S, MacKenzie TC, Lee H. Favorable outcomes in high-risk congenital pulmonary airway malformations treated with multiple courses of maternal betamethasone. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Apr; 50(4):515-8. PubMed

  • Jeanty C, Derderian SC, Mackenzie TC. Maternal-fetal cellular trafficking: clinical implications and consequences. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2014 Jun; 26(3):377-82. PubMed

  • Derderian SC, Togarrati PP, King C, Moradi PW, Reynaud D, Czechowicz A, Weissman IL, MacKenzie TC. In utero depletion of fetal hematopoietic stem cells improves engraftment after neonatal transplantation in mice. Blood. 2014 Aug 07; 124(6):973-80. PubMed

  • Sanchez Rodriguez R, Pauli ML, Neuhaus IM, Yu SS, Arron ST, Harris HW, Yang SH, Anthony BA, Sverdrup FM, Krow-Lucal E, MacKenzie TC, Johnson DS, Meyer EH, Löhr A, Hsu A, Koo J, Liao W, Gupta R, Debbaneh MG, Butler D, Huynh M, Levin EC, Leon A, Hoffman WY, McGrath MH, Alvarado MD, Ludwig CH, Truong HA, Maurano MM, Gratz IK, Abbas AK, Rosenblum MD. Memory regulatory T cells reside in human skin. J Clin Invest. 2014 Mar; 124(3):1027-36. PubMed

  • Derderian SC, Trivedi S, Farrell J, Keller RL, Rand L, Goldstein R, Feldstein VA, Hirose S, MacKenzie TC. Outcomes of fetal intervention for primary hydrothorax. J Pediatr Surg. 2014 Jun; 49(6):900-3; discussion 903-4. PubMed

  • Wegorzewska M, Nijagal A, Wong CM, Le T, Lescano N, Tang Q, MacKenzie TC. Fetal intervention increases maternal T cell awareness of the foreign conceptus and can lead to immune-mediated fetal demise. J Immunol. 2014 Feb 15; 192(4):1938-45. PubMed

  • Cheng LS, Courtier J, MacKenzie TC. Anal duplication in a one-year-old girl. J Pediatr Surg Case Rep. 2013 Oct 01; 1(10):373-374. PubMed

  • Fleck S, Bautista G, Keating SM, Lee TH, Keller RL, Moon-Grady AJ, Gonzales K, Norris PJ, Busch MP, Kim CJ, Romero R, Lee H, Miniati D, MacKenzie TC. Fetal production of growth factors and inflammatory mediators predicts pulmonary hypertension in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Res. 2013 Sep; 74(3):290-8. PubMed

  • Nijagal A, Derderian C, Le T, Jarvis E, Nguyen L, Tang Q, Mackenzie TC. Direct and indirect antigen presentation lead to deletion of donor-specific T cells after in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation in mice. Blood. 2013 May 30; 121(22):4595-602. PubMed

  • Nijagal A, MacKenzie TC. Clinical implications of maternal-fetal cellular trafficking. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2013 Feb; 22(1):62-5. PubMed

  • Schecter SC, Courtier J, Cho SJ, Saadai P, Hirose S, Mackenzie TC, Miniati D. Hepatic portocholecystostomy for biliary atresia: a 25-year follow-up and review. J Pediatr Surg. 2013 Jan; 48(1):262-6. PubMed

  • Shue EH, Soares B, Courtier J, Hogue J, Shimotake T, MacKenzie TC. Type IV intestinal atresia, congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, and chronic pulmonary hypertension secondary to multiple vascular disruption syndrome in a monochorionic twin. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Oct; 47(10):1938-42. PubMed

  • Nijagal A, Jelin E, Feldstein VA, Courtier J, Urisman A, Jones KD, Lee H, Hirose S, MacKenzie TC. The diagnosis and management of intradiaphragmatic extralobar pulmonary sequestrations: a report of 4 cases. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Aug; 47(8):1501-5. PubMed

  • Saadai P, MacKenzie TC. Increased maternal microchimerism after open fetal surgery. Chimerism. 2012 Jul-Dec; 3(3):1-3. PubMed

  • Saadai P, Lee TH, Bautista G, Gonzales KD, Nijagal A, Busch MP, Kim CJ, Romero R, Lee H, Hirose S, Rand L, Miniati D, Farmer DL, MacKenzie TC. Alterations in maternal-fetal cellular trafficking after fetal surgery. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Jun; 47(6):1089-94. PubMed

  • Saadai P, Jelin EB, Nijagal A, Schecter SC, Hirose S, MacKenzie TC, Rand L, Goldstein R, Farrell J, Harrison M, Lee H. Long-term outcomes after fetal therapy for congenital high airway obstructive syndrome. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Jun; 47(6):1095-100. PubMed

  • Nijagal A, Flake AW, MacKenzie TC. In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation for the treatment of congenital anomalies. Clin Perinatol. 2012 Jun; 39(2):301-10. PubMed

  • Nijagal A, Fleck S, MacKenzie TC. Maternal microchimerism in patients with biliary atresia: Implications for allograft tolerance. Chimerism. 2012 Apr-Jun; 3(2):37-9. PubMed

  • Nijagal A, Fleck S, Hills NK, Feng S, Tang Q, Kang SM, Rosenthal P, MacKenzie TC. Decreased risk of graft failure with maternal liver transplantation in patients with biliary atresia. Am J Transplant. 2012 Feb; 12(2):409-19. PubMed

  • Landsman L, Nijagal A, Whitchurch TJ, Vanderlaan RL, Zimmer WE, Mackenzie TC, Hebrok M. Pancreatic mesenchyme regulates epithelial organogenesis throughout development. PLoS Biol. 2011 Sep; 9(9):e1001143. PubMed

  • Nijagal A, Wegorzewska M, Le T, Tang Q, Mackenzie TC. The maternal immune response inhibits the success of in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation. Chimerism. 2011 Apr; 2(2):55-7. PubMed

  • Nijagal A, Le T, Wegorzewska M, Mackenzie TC. A mouse model of in utero transplantation. J Vis Exp. 2011 Jan 27; (47). PubMed

  • Nijagal A, Wegorzewska M, Jarvis E, Le T, Tang Q, MacKenzie TC. Maternal T cells limit engraftment after in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011 Feb; 121(2):582-92. PubMed

  • Zaid HB, Rhee SJ, Hirose S, Mackenzie TC. Image of the month--quiz case. Gastric duplication cyst. Arch Surg. 2010 Oct; 145(10):1019, 1020. PubMed

  • Jancelewicz T, Vu LT, Keller RL, Bratton B, Lee H, Farmer D, Harrison M, Miniati D, Mackenzie T, Hirose S, Nobuhara K. Long-term surgical outcomes in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: observations from a single institution. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Jan; 45(1):155-60; discussion 160. PubMed

  • Sabatino DE, Mackenzie TC, Peranteau W, Edmonson S, Campagnoli C, Liu YL, Flake AW, High KA. Persistent expression of hF.IX After tolerance induction by in utero or neonatal administration of AAV-1-F.IX in hemophilia B mice. Mol Ther. 2007 Sep; 15(9):1677-85. PubMed

  • Keswani SG, Crombleholme TM, Rychik J, Tian Z, Mackenzie TC, Johnson MP, Wilson RD, Flake AW, Hedrick HL, Howell LJ, Adzick NS. Impact of continuous intraoperative monitoring on outcomes in open fetal surgery. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2005 Jul-Aug; 20(4):316-20. PubMed

  • MacKenzie TC, Kobinger GP, Louboutin JP, Radu A, Javazon EH, Sena-Esteves M, Wilson JM, Flake AW. Transduction of satellite cells after prenatal intramuscular administration of lentiviral vectors. J Gene Med. 2005 Jan; 7(1):50-8. PubMed

  • Bouchard S, MacKenzie TC, Radu AP, Hayashi S, Peranteau WH, Chirmule N, Flake AW. Long-term transgene expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle following fetal administration of adenoviral or adeno-associated viral vectors in mice. J Gene Med. 2003 Nov; 5(11):941-50. PubMed

  • MacKenzie TC, Kobinger GP, Kootstra NA, Radu A, Sena-Esteves M, Bouchard S, Wilson JM, Verma IM, Flake AW. Efficient transduction of liver and muscle after in utero injection of lentiviral vectors with different pseudotypes. Mol Ther. 2002 Sep; 6(3):349-58. PubMed

  • MacKenzie TC, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW. The ex-utero intrapartum treatment. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2002 Aug; 14(4):453-8. PubMed

  • Mackenzie TC, Shaaban AF, Radu A, Flake AW. Engraftment of bone marrow and fetal liver cells after in utero transplantation in MDX mice. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Jul; 37(7):1058-64. PubMed

  • Mackenzie TC, Crombleholme TM, Johnson MP, Schnaufer L, Flake AW, Hedrick HL, Howell LJ, Adzick NS. The natural history of prenatally diagnosed conjoined twins. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Mar; 37(3):303-9. PubMed

  • MacKenzie TC, Flake AW. Human mesenchymal stem cells: insights from a surrogate in vivo assay system. Cells Tissues Organs. 2002; 171(1):90-5. PubMed

  • Gardner SC, Grunwald GK, Rumsfeld JS, Mackenzie T, Gao D, Perlin JB, McDonald G, Shroyer AL. Risk factors for intermediate-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001 Dec; 72(6):2033-7. PubMed

  • Kramer RE, Sokol RJ, Yerushalmi B, Liu E, MacKenzie T, Hoffenberg EJ, Narkewicz MR. Large-volume paracentesis in the management of ascites in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001 Sep; 33(3):245-9. PubMed

  • Miga D, Sokol RJ, Mackenzie T, Narkewicz MR, Smith D, Karrer FM. Survival after first esophageal variceal hemorrhage in patients with biliary atresia. J Pediatr. 2001 Aug; 139(2):291-6. PubMed

  • Mackenzie TC, Howell LJ, Flake AW, Adzick NS. The management of prenatally diagnosed choledochal cysts. J Pediatr Surg. 2001 Aug; 36(8):1241-3. PubMed

  • MacKenzie TC, Guttenberg ME, Nisenbaum HL, Johnson MP, Adzick NS. A fetal lung lesion consisting of bronchogenic cyst, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation: the missing link? Fetal Diagn Ther. 2001 Jul-Aug; 16(4):193-5. PubMed

  • Mackenzie TC, Flake AW. Human mesenchymal stem cells persist, demonstrate site-specific multipotential differentiation, and are present in sites of wound healing and tissue regeneration after transplantation into fetal sheep. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2001 May-Jun; 27(3):601-4. PubMed

  • Mackenzie TC, Flake AW. Multilineage differentiation of human MSC after in utero transplantation. Cytotherapy. 2001; 3(5):403-5. PubMed

  • Liechty KW, MacKenzie TC, Shaaban AF, Radu A, Moseley AM, Deans R, Marshak DR, Flake AW. Human mesenchymal stem cells engraft and demonstrate site-specific differentiation after in utero transplantation in sheep. Nat Med. 2000 Nov; 6(11):1282-6. PubMed

  • Zawada ET, Johnson M, McClung D, TerWee J, MacKenzie T. Systemic and renal hemodynamic consequences of manipulation of serum calcium and/or parathyroid hormone in the intact conscious mongrel dog. J Am Coll Nutr. 1987 Apr; 6(2):131-8. PubMed

  • Zawada ET, Johnson M, Mackenzie T, Sica DA, Muakkassa W, Green SJ, Goldman M. Hemoglobin A1 in renal transplant recipients. Arch Intern Med. 1985 Jan; 145(1):82-4. PubMed

  • Green S, Zawada ET, Muakkassa W, Johnson M, Mackenzie T, McClanahan M, Graybill A, Goldman M. Effect of clonidine therapy on renal hemodynamics in renal transplant hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 1984 Jun; 144(6):1205-8. PubMed

View Tippi MacKenzie, MD's research profile on UCSF Profiles